Projects: 2014

Please note that the PhD projects listed are examples of projects offered to current CDT students and as such are not generally available to prospective students.

Issues of climate change, fuel supply and CO2 emissions provide exciting prospects for the investigation of new and improved fuels.  Turbocharging is becoming an increasingly important means of achieving the required very high engine efficiency and emissions reduction without loss of power. The requirement is for high burning rates with an absence of knock. Improved…
There is increasing demand for the development of new fuels for automotive, power generation, industrial and other applications. This is driven by issues of climate change, emissions reduction (e.g.CO2) and fuel supply. If new fuels are to be efficiently used, without loss of power, with reduced emissions, and with safe handling and storage, it is…
The drive for energy efficiency and low emissions is placing increasing demands on combustor design with schemes such as lean premixed pre-­vaporised combustion, stratified combustions and the move to bio-based fuels all providing challenges for designers. There is hence a simultaneous need for enhanced design codes and experimental methods to undertake fundamental studies of reacting…
Research into new combustion strategies requires a new approach to data analysis. This project will support future Jaguar-LandRover engine programmes by providing state-of-the-art thermodynamic analysis software to investigate novel combustion concepts. The analysis software packages are LUSIE (Leeds University Spark Ignition Engine) and LUSIEDA (Leeds University Spark Ignition Engine Data Analysis). Analysis tools of this type…
One of the most interesting features of fluid dynamical systems is their tendency to form layers or “staircases”. These are particularly apparent, as density staircases, in double-diffusive systems in which two competing elements contribute to the density and, crucially, diffuse at different rates. The most studied example is the heat-salt system in the oceans (so-called…
Future advanced military aircraft face an appreciable technical challenge to design thermal management systems of adequate capacity within the available space and respecting special installation constraints (e.g. size, efficiency, thermal signatures, etc.). Various heat exchangers (HE) constitute key components within aircraft thermal management systems, and for certain of these the achieved heat transfer performance for…
The removal of heat from power and micro electronic systems using total liquid cooling is becoming popular and necessary. Traditionally such systems have been air-cooled. This is noisy, due to methods of forced convection, and inefficient because the fluid has a low specific heat. Natural convection of the dielectric fluid transfers the heat from the…
Impinging jets are used in a wide range of process engineering application e.g. tunnelling operations, paint spraying and cavitation drilling. Liquid jets are also used to estimate sediment strength in natural environment studies; from predicting attrition in waste reservoir outlets to measuring long term bed-slip in estuaries. Related is the use of liquid jets in…
Non-spherical particles in fluid flows are encountered in both natural and industrial environments. The relevance of non-spherical particles to the flow properties of complex fluids has often been overlooked with preference frequently given to the orientationally simpler spherical particles. The experimental programme will study the fluid dynamics of non-spherical particles (cubes, rods and needles) in…
Submarine fan systems form some of the largest sedimentary deposit and they incorporate hydrocarbon reservoirs of critical importance to global industry and economy. Submarine fan systems are constructed from the deposits of meandering channels, themselves built over geological timescales by deposition from successions of density driven flows (turbidity currents). However, the physical controls on the…
In a group of devices, such as thermo-acoustic engines and pulse tube coolers, oscillatory flows are used to achieve power generation and heat pumping or refrigeration. There are few mechanical moving parts in these devices, which makes the devices long lasting and require little maintenance. Environmental friendly inert gases are often used as flow media….
In this project the student will model debris flows using CFD methods to obtain predictive tools for the travel distance and extent of debris flows. The CFD models will be tested against inter alia field observations and flume experiments. Debris flows exist in a variety of environments and often are generated from debris stored in…
This project will study the fluid motions within drops deposited by inkjet printers, through the use and development of numerical methods and mathematical models of colloidal suspensions during drop deposition. In particular we are interested in understanding the fluid and suspended particle motions in various scenarios including the impact, spreading and evaporation of single drops…
The solid inner core of the Earth is growing as the Earth cools. Fluid outer core material comprises liquid iron and lighter components, and as the iron crystallizes on the inner core, light material is released and floats upwards stirring the inner core. It is this convective stirring which powers the geodynamo, the source of…
Sudden outburst floods from dams often contain very high loads of sediment across a range of sizes. These outbursts can come for the sudden failure of constructed dams for water storage and hydropower, glacial ice dams, landslide dams and others. Thus this is an international problem. The high sediment load fundamentally changes the nature of…
This is a mathematical and theoretical project which will explore the relationship between deep convective storms and the circulation of the tropical atmosphere. These storms are known to dominate the energy balance of the tropics, but their coupling with the circulation represents one of the foremost uncertainties in global prediction, with significance for severe weather…
Convection within the Earth’s fluid core generates the planetary magnetic field; spatial and temporal variations of the geomagnetic field can thus be used to gain insight into the dynamics of this otherwise inaccessible region. Observed non-axisymmetric structure in the Earth’s magnetic field over long timescales almost certainly arises due to the influence on heterogeneous boundary…
The Earth’s liquid core is a very remote place indeed – we know relatively very little about its structure and dynamics because direct observation is not possible. In the last few decades, there has been mounting evidence of so-called torsional waves, inferred through movement of the magnetic field with which the waves interact. However, the…
This project involves the use of statistical techniques such as data assimilation for validation of the construction of models of fluid flows. It is often not possible when constructing a model for a fluid flow to include all physical processes; this is particularly true for turbulent flow in geophysics, and in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas….
The fall in the reserve replacement rate means that enhanced oil recovery (EOR) will become increasingly important. Improving EOR requires a thorough understanding of capillary dominated flow through rocks containing heterogeneities e.g. faults and bedding. Conducting lab experiments on such material is trivial but interpreting the results is difficult as industry-standard flow codes that are…
Shale gas has rapidly changed the energy market in the USA and is poised to do so elsewhere in the world. Despite this success there remains massive uncertainty regarding how gas flows in the small pores within shale. Unlike conventional reservoirs, gas flow is not likely to occur by continuum flow (i.e. Darcy’s Law). Instead…
Internal gravity waves are interior ocean waves driven by gravity acting on layers with varying density in the ocean. They are held responsible for a large fraction of the ocean’s energy and form a mechanism to transport energy input on the large scale towards the small dissipative scales. One such mechanism is geometric focussing of…
Convective squalls are responsible for extreme wind gusts in many parts of the world. These squalls can have a significant impact on structures such as oil platforms or wind turbines. Currently there is no unified quantitative understanding of the turbulence and gusts associated with these phenomena and so design and operations codes rely on simplistic…
Full three-dimensional simulation of extreme flows in rivers and man-made channels is not only difficult to model but also difficult to measure and thus validate. We are interested in looking at high-flow channels such as a flooding rivers around bridge piers or other structures which can cause rapid catastrophic scour, or reservoir overflow spillways which…
Recent results of RS, using ergodic theory of dynamical systems, and a study of return time dynamics, determine the rate of fluid mixing in (very abstract) models of chaotic advection. In particular, the exponential mixing rate expected of chaotic dynamics is slowed to an algebraic rate by the nature of the dynamics at the boundaries….
The main objectives of the proposed research is to develop fully coupled multiphysics models to provide the capability of addressing the issues that arise from the Underground Coal Gastification operation and subsequent CO2 storage. In particular, the proposed study will utilize the unique advantages of conduction heat transfer in a Multiphysics model to simulate the…
The overall aim of the proposed research is to predict the effects of corrosion and erosion for pipeline assurance using both theoretical simulation and experimental measurement. The university has an outstanding research records on the pipeline corrosion theory, measurement and application, CFD modelling for fluid flow, particle/pollutant-laden fluid flows and heat and mass transfer, and…
This project will combine Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) with the time-resolved high-speed Particle-Image Velocimetry (PIV) of turbulent flows in a reciprocating internal combustion engine. While it is still common that the turbulence is modelled with either two-equation models, e.g. ubiquitous k-epsilon model, or with the approaches based on transport equations for individual components of the Reynolds-stress…
Phase-field models allow multiple phases to be represented via the introduction of one or more artificial phase variables alongside the usual physical flow variables. Typically, a value of 0 indicates absence of that phase at a given point whilst a value of 1 indicates that the phase occupies that point fully. The interface between phases…
Particle segregation and associated problems such as inertial migration are of interest to a wide range of problems from industrial processes such as suction dredging and hydraulic conveyancing, to natural systems where sands and gravels are injected into surrounding sediments forming kilometre scale pipes and associated lateral networks. Segregation and inertial migration have long been…
Although there have been 2-D numerical simulations of this 3-D problem, the vast majority of existing literature considers the formulation and solution of idealised 1-D models, which are used to identify fundamental features associated with the breakage of thin films. Typically this breakage is a direct consequence of the imposition of a universally employed “pinning”…
This project is subject to a non-disclosure agreement. Students are advised to consult their project booklet for details of the project, which should be treated as confidential.