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Charlie Lloyd

Leverhulme Early Career Fellowship
PhD Project Title
Shark Biomimetics: The Role of Denticles and Riblets on the Turbulent Boundary Layer


I graduated from the University of Liverpool with a Meng degree in Mechanical Engineering after studying a range of fluid dynamics modules such as heat transfer, viscous fluid flow and computational fluid dynamics. My third year project focused on the hydrodynamics of high speed windsurfing.

Research Interests

My current work is focussed on the hydrodynamics of shark scales, with a particular focus on the role of riblets in combination with scales. The work is of interest to biologists and engineers who aim to understand how and why shark scales have evolved, and how they can be used to inspire design of drag reducing structures. Alongside experimental work on 3D printed shark scales, numerical techniques have been used and developed to simulate flows over shark scales, and have led to a publication investigating the numerical errors of typical eddy-viscosity turbulence models associated with near-wall grid resolution.
C. J. Lloyd, J. Peakall, A. D. Burns, G. M. Keevil & R. M. Dorrell (2020) Numerical errors at walls: on the sensitivity of RANS models to near-wall cell size, International Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics, DOI: 10.1080/10618562.2020.1732941

Why I chose the CDT in Fluid Dynamics

The main reason regarding my decision to apply for the course was the integrated MSc, which will allow me to develop necessary skills before commencing my PhD research project. The large range of potential projects was also a driving factor.